and Communication Technology (ICT) will provide us with the capability
to renew and even reinvent the business. Chapter
3 provided a global picture of the ICT enabled Web Enterprises and
the ICT systems of the 21st Century.
are needed for designing and realising these complex virtual enterprises
and ICT systems. This approach must consider the business and the supporting
ICT system as one whole in order to guarantee that:
alignment between business and ICT is optimal;
really enables the business;
components of both the business and the ICT system collaborate and
communicate well together;
transformation of the business and the ICT system are feasible;
ICT system is durable;
the business and the ICT system are flexible and adaptable in those
aspects and to that extent that the business needs;
ICT systems of different companies and private individuals can communicate
and co-operate with each other;
quality profile of the ICT systems matches the quality profile of
believes that the only way to realise these goals is to use an integrated
architectural approach to the design of both the business and
sees architecture as the key for the development of ICT enabled business.
7.1 An Example
of Integrated Architecture: A Virtual Bank
A Virtual Bank is a good example why an integrated architecture
is needed for the design and realisation of both business and the ICT
system of a company. This example is based on an existing virtual bank
the Open Bank,
a subsidiary of the Spanish Grupo Santander. Cap Gemini developed
the ICT system of Open Bank.
bank is a first step in the direction of the agile Web Enterprise.
example we show how the Cap Gemini Architecture support an integrated
design of business and ICT. The Cap Gemini Architecture integrates
the architectural design of the aspects business, information, information
system and technology infrastructure.
7.1.1 Business and
bank uses a call centre and the Internet as main distribution channels
to the clients. The bank also uses distribution channels like automatic
teller machines (ATM), electronic kiosks, branch offices and third parties.
The bank delivers different financial products to their clients and
also offers value-added services based on products of third parties.
is a complex organisation consisting of organisational units that are
responsible for certain business roles. Together these organisational
units are able to form different supply chains that deliver products
and services to the customers.
units and their roles are:
distribution channels responsible for the delivery of the services
to the customer.
of the bank, responsible for the administration of the products of
the bank. A back-office executes the financial and administrative
transactions for a certain type of product;
parties responsible for the administration of their specific products.
- A middle-office
responsible for roles that support and co-ordinate the whole supply
of the roles of the middle-office are:
is the co-ordination and control of the communication between the
distribution channels, the middle-office and the back-offices/third
parties. This includes authorisation of customers for the use of distribution
channels and for the access to services and products in the middle-office,
back-offices or at third parties.
services support customers or employees in performing more complex
processes. Examples are:
customer asking an overview of all his accounts.
team of employees making a new contract offering to a customer.
services support for instance
marketing of products.
of information about the customers, products and services.
development of new or improved products, services or distribution
architectural design of the business the Cap Gemini Architecture
supports a coherent business design consisting of:
organisational units like distribution channels, middle-office and
roles of the organisational units, inclusive the business processes
corresponding to these roles.
"construction" of financial products and services.
communication and co-operation between the different organisational
units and business roles in the supply chain.
attention is paid to the design of the role of information in the business.
This results in an information design, which is part of the business
design. The information design is not shown here.
design consists of:
information and knowledge supporting the organisational units, business
roles and business processes in the business.
communication between the different organisational units and roles
information and information processes needed for the control and co-ordination
of the business processes. This is especially aimed at the roles "process
service" and "distribution channel management" in the
middle-office that control and co-ordinate processes in the whole
Gemini Architecture supports a design of the (automated) information
system of the virtual bank that is aligned with business design in order
to give maximum enabling of the business
system is divided into subsystems that correspond to the different organisational
units and their business role. Every business role has its own information
(sub)system, which consists of the applications and data that support
the specific business processes and business information of that role.
uses more types of distribution channels including ATM, Internet, kiosk
and branch office. Every type of distribution channel has its own information
system with specific applications and data.
system of the Internet channel for instance consists of an Internet
browser at the PC of the customers and a Web-server at a communication
server of the bank. The customer uses the browser to communicate via
the Internet with the Web-server, which has specific applications that
communicate with the customer through Web pages. The Web-server also
communicates with the Distribution Channel Management Information System
that gives the customer access to other information systems within the
has multiple back-offices. Each back-office has its own information
system supporting the business information and business processes for
a specific type of product.
has its own information systems, for instance:
Channel Management, which supports and controls the communication
of information systems in the distribution channels with information
systems in middle-office, in back-offices or of third parties.
Services, which provide a flexible control of the pattern of execution
of business processes within a transaction. An example is the control
of process handling a request of the customer of an overview of his
accounts or the workflow management of administrative processes.
Support, for instance a data warehouse application for storage and
analysis of marketing, customer and product information.
Gemini Architecture supports the design of this type of distributed
information systems. The architecture support a coherent information
system design consisting of:
specific information subsystems of the different organisational units
that support their specific business roles, processes and information;
design of the communication interfaces between these information systems;
design of the human/computer interfaces for the customer and the employees.
system design also supports the required dynamic properties of the business:
addition of new channels, new products in back-offices, new third
parties and new supportive roles in the middle office;
access for the customers to their products via different channels;
- a uniform
interface for the customers to all their products.
infrastructure is divided into subsystems that support the different
information subsystems from the information system design. Generally,
every subsystem has its own computers. The computers of the different
subsystems are interconnected via networks (the Internet or private
channel may have specific technology. The ATM channel for instance consists
of a number of ATMs at different locations, which communicate through
a network and one or more communications servers with the computers
of the middle-office.
of the back-office systems may be a mainframe or a cluster of computers.
infrastructure of the middle-office consists of different computers
in the role of communication server for the distribution channel management,
process server for the process services or data server for the commercial
in the middle-office play also a crucial role in linking together the
different hardware/software technologies in the distribution channels
and in the back-offices.
Gemini Architecture supports the design of this type of networked technology
infrastructure with optimal capabilities for the support of different
information systems. Based on the type of information systems, the required
capability, capacity and other qualities, appropriate products are chosen
based on a coherent set of ICT standards.
Gemini Architecture supports a coherent design of the business, information
systems and technology infrastructure of a virtual bank. The design
divides the bank in organisational units with specific roles in the
business process of the bank. Information systems and technology infrastructure
are organised to support the organisational units and their business
roles in an adaptive way. The bank can easily extend the business with
new types of distribution channels, with new products in the back-office,
with new third parties or with new co-ordinating or information services
in the middle-office. Changes in the organisation of the business or
changes in the contracts with the customer are immediately translated
in new patterns for control of the business processes by the middle-office.
The result is an extremely flexible and adaptive ICT enabled business.
7.2.1 The Definition
In the IT world the word architecture has multiple
meanings. Here are the two definitions used in this context:
is the structure of a specific IT system
are technology architecture for the technology infrastructure
or software architecture for the software. This architecture is the
result of the design process. The architecture prescribes:
type of components of which the business or ICT system may be
type of role(s) these components can play in the system;
the components communicate and co-operate together in delivering
services to actors outside the system;
the behaviour and collaboration of these components is managed
is a reference architecture
is a set of principles, rules and guidelines that support the design
of a system. This definition means that systems with different functionality
are designed with use of the same reference architecture. The architecture
as reference architecture results in systems with common characteristics.
An important result for instance is that systems of different companies
can communicate and co-operate together because the architecture prescribes
compatible standards for communication.
uses the following definition for its architecture:
Gemini Architecture is a set of principles expressed in rules and guidelines
that acts as reference architecture (meaning 2) for the design of the
architecture of business and ICT systems (meaning 1). Cap Gemini
is developing this reference architecture. We support the architecture
with metamodels, templates, frameworks and industry standards for the
design and construction of business and ICT systems. Cap Gemini
uses the same architecture as reference for the design of the specific
business and ICT system of different customers. All these systems will
have a specific functionality based on the type of business of the customer.
But because these businesses and ICT systems are designed with the same
reference architecture, they all show the specific characteristics of
the Cap Gemini architecture in their style, engineering and construction.
the same with buildings that are designed by the same architect or school
of architects. All these buildings can have different roles (such as
church, house or office) and have their own specific architecture. But
all these buildings show common characteristics in style, engineering
and construction that are typical for the architect, who designed them.
7.2.2 The Role of
guidelines and rules stated by the Cap Gemini architecture support
primarily the architectural design of the business and ICT system. The
architectural design starts during the SCOPE or Analysis and Design
with a global design or a "city plan" of the new or
renewed business and ICT system in support of the business and ICT vision.
The global architectural design supports the decision making
about the business and ICT transformation. The planing and design of
the different projects within the transformation programme starts with
a more detailed design of the part of the business and ICT system that
is delivered by the project. This detailed design supports the decision-making
of the customer about the exact realisation of the change.
prepares a global or detailed architectural design that provides a clear
picture of the functionality, the structure, costs and qualities of
the resulting business and ICT system. The customer reviews the design
for usability and functionality and business and ICT experts assess
the feasibility of the design and also the risks and costs of realisation.
This may cause changes in the design. The customer accepts the final
design, which meets the expectations regarding functionality, qualities
and costs and starts the business and ICT transformation or he rejects
the design and cancels the transformation or project.
Gemini architecture supports the design of business or an ICT system
through principles, guidelines and rules for:
type of components of which the business or ICT system may be composed;
type of role(s) these components can play in the business of ICT system;
the components communicate and co-operate together in delivering products
the behaviour and collaboration of these components is managed and
serves as a reference for the design of the business and ICT
system. The reference architecture guides the architect towards a design
that complies with the vision and concepts of the architecture. The
architectural design also impacts the development of the new of renewed
business and ICT system and the management or better manageability of
the resulting business and ICT system. The developers change the business
and realise the ICT system in conformance to the architectural design.
The style, functionality and qualities of the resulting business and
ICT system will inherit the added value of the architecture. The business
and ICT will be recognised as being 'designed under Cap Gemini
7.3 The Integrated
The Cap Gemini Architecture pertains to both business and ICT systems
and comprises various aspects and abstraction levels. The Cap Gemini
Architecture consists of a number of areas that are positioned and interrelated
in the Integrated Architecture Framework (IAF).
three dimensions. The first dimension contains the major architecture areas. These major architecture areas
are sub-architectures within the Cap Gemini architecture. These
business architecture supporting the
design of the business. The architecture covers the following aspects
of the business: commercial, organisation, processes, personnel, administration
and finance. Information-oriented aspects of the business are not
information architecture supporting
the design of the information-oriented aspects of the business. The
architecture covers the following aspects: information, knowledge,
communication and co-ordination/control. The information architecture
is in fact a subset of the business architecture. We identify it as
separate area in order to make an explicit information architecture
that acts as a bridge between business architecture and the information
system architecture. The information architecture supports the realisation
of a specific information design for a company. The company decides
which part of this information design is realised as automated information
information system architecture supports
the design of the applications (software and data) of the (automated)
information system. The information system is normally a network of
information (sub)systems, knowledge systems, communication systems
and/or control systems. The information system is the automated part
of the information design. The information system is specifically
designed to support the business of a company. Information system
architecture differs from software architecture. Information system
architecture focuses on the role of applications in the business processes.
The information system architecture is function-oriented
In our opinion software architecture is a subset of the information
system architecture. The software architecture focuses on the construction
of applications from software components. The software architecture
technology architecture supports
the design of the technology infrastructure that supports the information
system. This architecture is aimed at the design of a technology infrastructure
with the right capabilities (qualities and capacity) to support the
information system. The technology architecture also regards the design
of the physical distribution of software and hardware.
dimension contains the specific architecture areas.
These are sub-architectures, which prescribe the design of organisational
aspects, which are the consequence of the introduction of an ICT system.
These sub-architectures give prescriptions in all the four major areas.
Currently Cap Gemini has recognised two of these specific architectures:
governance architecture structuring
the governance or ICT services management and the consequences for
the design and construction in all four major architecture areas.
The introduction of an ICT system makes it necessary to implement
an ICT services management organisation. The governance architecture
prescribes the design of the "business", information, information
system and technology infrastructure of this ICT services management
security architecture structuring the
security services and the consequences in all four major architecture
areas. The result is the design of all aspects of a security organisation.
and governance are realised by certain business procedures for the company
and a supporting organisation (department and/or third parties). The
governance and security processes are supported by dedicated information
systems and technology infrastructure.
dimension is the design approach. The design of the major and
specific areas follows three cycles with each its own resulting design
models. These cycles are:
conceptual cycle that answers the question: what will be realised?
For instance: what new business will be realised?
logical cycle answers the question: how will it be realised? For instance:
How will this new business be realised? How will this new business
function be structured?
physical cycle answers the question: with what will the new business
be realised? For instance: which resources (i.e. employees, applications,
ICT, buildings) are needed for this new business?
ProgrammeX will develop the Actor-based Architectural Design Approach
as a new content for the Integrated Architecture Framework. This approach
is especially aimed at the design of the business processes and ICT
systems of the ICT enabled Web Enterprise.
are self-controlling objects. In the design of business and ICT system
we discern the following actors:
beings in the business,
applications in the information system,
software components and hardware components in the technology infrastructure.
architectural design sees the Web Enterprise as an organisation of human
beings, applications, software and hardware collaborating together as
self-controlling actors in the production and delivery of products and
services to the customer.
7.4.1 What is an
Here follows the definition of an actor.
7.4.2 Actors in
the Web Enterprise
In our view on the Web Enterprise are three types of actors: human actors,
information system actors (IS actors) and technology infrastructure
actors (TI actors).
picture gives an impression of the collaboration of these actors in
business, information system and technology infrastructure.
of a company is seen as a network of communicating and co-operating
human actors. Human actors are:
people in roles such as manager, employee or customer;
units such as teams, departments or companies, which act as one
actor in the delivery of a product or service to another human
is organised as one or more supply chains or a flexible supply
web of human actors like individuals, organisational units and companies
working together in delivering products or services to the customers.
picture shows how two human actors collaborate in the supply chain.
Actor 1 as supplier delivers a product to actor 2 as customer.
behaviour of the actors consists of:
exchange of messages in a conversation about the production and delivery
of the product,
the delivery of the product from actor 1 to actor 2.
processes of the actors are separated in two main functions:
Communication and Control (C&C) function, which exchanges messages
with other actors about the production and delivery of products and
services and controls the production and delivery processes of the
Production and Delivery (P&D) function, which accepts products
or services from other actors and produces and delivers products and
services to other actors.
between the actors will start with a message from actor 2 to actor 1
with the question: can you deliver a product to me? The actors have
a conversation about the exact properties and qualities of the requested
product. When they agree, actor 2 will give an order to actor 1 to deliver
the product. The whole conversation is between the C&C functions
of the actors.
function of Actor 1 now starts its P&D function for the production
and delivery of the product to actor 1. The C&C function of actor
1 controls the execution of the whole production and delivery process.
function of actor 2 starts its P&D function to receive the product
and checks if it is in conformance with the order. When this is the
case actor 2 sends a message to actor 1 that the product is accepted.
The collaboration is successfully ended.
of two actors forms the basis for the organisation of supply chains
where human actors work together in the production and delivery of complex
products and services. The actors in the supply chain have different
roles such as:
- a production
role: the production and delivery of a product component
- a supportive
role: helpdesk for information systems
- a management
or co-ordination role: business unit manager
A Web Enterprise
takes maximum advantage of the self-control of human actors and their
communication about the production and delivery of products.
use communication and self-control to adapt their pattern of collaboration
in the production and delivery processes. They adapt both the supply
chain and the composition of the resulting product or services to the
wishes of the customer. Such a communicating network organisation of
self-controlling actors behaves as an organism that adapts to
7.4.3 Actors in
the ICT System
The human actors in the Web Enterprise are supported by services delivered
by the information system within the ICT system.
system is an organisation of information system (IS) actors that
delivers information services to the human actors (both individuals
IS actors are applications in the form of self-controlling subsystems.
The subsystem consists of software components for:
communication with other actors (human actors and other IS actors);
control of the behaviour of the actor.
production and delivery of specific IS services of the actor;
are an extended form of software agents or active objects. See description
in Vision chapter 3.3 and chapter 4.5.
IS actors show the same behaviour in collaboration as human actors.
IS actors can collaborate with each other and with human actors.
of IS actors support the human actors in the following parts of their
communication between human actors and the communication of human
actors with IS actors and self-controlling machines.
control processes of the collaboration and operation of human actors,
IS actors and self-controlling machines.
storage and retrieval of information and knowledge.
production & delivery processes of information and knowledge products
view the IS actors are an extension of the human actors. IS actors
are virtual actors that collaborate as human surrogates with
the human actors. Human actors and IS actors form together an organisation.
of the collaboration between human actors and IS actors on the business
is more than the support of existing business processes. The collaboration
also enables the human actors to develop new processes, products and
services or new forms of organisation: IS actors enable new business.
The ICT enabled Web Enterprise is a collaboration of human actors and
actors use the self-control of the IS actors to give them orders to
change their behaviour and patterns of collaboration. Within certain
boundaries it is possible that the IS actors "learn" and adapt
their behaviour in response to changes in their environment. The result
is an information system that shows the same adaptive an agile network
organisation as the human actors in the Web Enterprise.
actors never take over the full responsibility for delivered IS services
from human actors. There is always a human actor in the ICT organisation
of the Web Enterprise who is responsible and accountable for the behaviour
of the IS actors and their effect on the business.
actors in the information system are supported by the technology infrastructure.
The technology infrastructure is a collaboration of Technology Infrastructure
actors (TI actors). There are two types of TI actors:
devices like computers, networks, printers and disk units that have
a control system. A hardware device and its control system form together
a hardware actor. The control system (in fact a software agent)
is responsible for the communication and control processes of the
hardware actor. The hardware device itself performs the physical production
and delivery processes of the services of the device. The control
system makes the difference between a self-controlling hardware actor
and a dumb device.
System Utilities that deliver general utility services to the IS actors.
Examples of this System Utility actors are a DBMS that supports
the data storage and retrieval of the IS actors, a Message Queue Service
that supports the communication between IS actors and a Transaction
Monitor, which support the control of an IS actor.
technology infrastructure is physical a network of hardware actors like
computers, networks and other devices and of the necessary system utility
actors. The result is an organisation of TI actors. The IS actors of
the information system are implemented on this technology infrastructure.
The TI actors in the technology infrastructure deliver the following
services to the IS actors of the information system:
physical execution of the communication between IS actors and through
interfaces with human actors,
physical execution of the processes of the IS actors,
physical storage of the data and instructions (programs or classes)
of IS actors.
7.4.4 Actors in
the Integrated Architecture Framework
on actors in business and ICT system has consequences for the architectural
design of business and ICT system. The architect designs the business
and the ICT system as a collaboration of human actors, IS actors and
Integrated Architecture Framework (IAF) this means the following design
design result of the business and information aspect is a collaboration
of human actors, which delivers products and services to the customers.
design result of the information system aspect is a collaboration
of IS actors delivering information system services to the human
actors in the business
design result of the technology infrastructure aspect is a collaboration
of TI actors delivering hardware and system utility services to
the IS actors in the information system.
logical design cycle the architect focuses on the roles and responsibilities
of these actors.
of an actor in the organisation is the delivery of a certain product
or service. The responsibilities of an actor concern for instance the
control of the quality aspects of a product or the requirement to collaborate
with other actors.
also designs the collaboration of the actors in the organisation that
is how they can form supply chains for the delivery of a product or
service and how they communicate with each other for the management
an control of their collaboration.
physical design the architect will focus on the on the physical resources
that must realise the roles of the actors.
actors this means a description of the competencies and skills of the
person that must play the actor role.
actors are physically designed as a software subsystem consisting of
tailor-made and/or of-the-shelf software components.
actors are also designed as a software or hardware subsystem consisting
of software and hardware components.
Design uses Available Technology and Existing Systems
In the actor-based approach the logical design of human actors, IS actors
and TI actors describes an ideal solution that must be realised with
available human and technology resources. In the physical design special
attention must be paid how IS actors and TI actors are realised with
available software and hardware resources like packages, development
tools, middleware, operating systems and hardware. One way of realising
this is the development of reference architectures with templates and
patterns for the realisation of physical IS and TI actors based on available
systems are also included in the actor-based design. The general approach
is to redesign the systems to one ore more IS actors that play a role
in the new ICT enabled business. Normally it is necessary to add some
new functionality to the existing systems to realise them as a new group
of IS actors. The whole approach is in fact encapsulation of the existing
system into one or more IS actors.
Design of Web Enterprise Management
In the architectural design special attention is paid to Web
management within the Web Enterprise Management is designed through:
and responsibilities of human actors and organisational units in the
and control functionality of human actors aimed at the management
and operational control of the agile and adaptive human collaboration.
governance and management roles/responsibilities of human actors
concerning the information exchange and knowledge creation in the
enablement of the business management is designed through:
and responsibilities of IS actors in the ICT system that support the
human actors in the business.
and control functionality of IS actors aimed at the support and reinforcement
of governance, management and operational control roles of the human
- IS actors
supporting the information exchange and knowledge creation in the
management within the Web Enterprise Management is designed through:
and responsibilities of human actors and organisational units within
the ICT organisation.
and control functionality of these human actors aimed at the management
and operational control of the ICT system.
governance and management roles/responsibilities of human actors in
the ICT organisation (services manager, auditor)
enablement of the ICT management is designed through:
and responsibilities of special IS actors in the ICT system that support
the human actors in the ICT organisation.
IS actors supporting the business and the TI actors are extended with
functionality for functions like maintenance, deployment, remote monitoring
and control by the human actors in the ICT organisation.
of the actor-based design approach is a full ICT enablement of the business
management and ICT management within the Web Enterprise.
The Actor-based Architectural Design and the Integrated Architecture
Framework (IAF) support a coherent design for the business, the information
system and the technology infrastructure of a ICT enabled Web Enterprise.
Gemini Architecture supports the delivery of an architectural design
organisational units and employees with clearly defined roles as human
actors within the business of the Web Enterprise.
in the form of IS-actors with clearly defined roles in the delivery
of IS-services to the business
- A technology
infrastructure with clearly defined roles in the delivery of infrastructure
services and capabilities to the IS actors.
collaboration of all these actors in delivering products and services
to the customers of the Web Enterprise.
integrated architectural approach to the design of both
the business and ICT system is needed because ICT provides us with the
capability to renew and even reinvent the business. ICT gives us the
opportunity to realise an organisation like a virtual bank and in future
even more complex virtual enterprises. The integrated architectural
approach considers the business and the supporting IT system as one
ecosystem of collaborating actors.
of the Cap Gemini architecture is an intelligent structure of both
the business and the ICT system. The structure, dynamics, qualities
and capacities of the business and the supporting information system
and technology infrastructure are designed to have maximum flexibility
and adaptability with respect to changes in both the business and the