5.2.1 The View on
Business and ICT system
enabled Web Enterprise results in a "holistic" view on business
and ICT system.
view the business is a network of communicating and co-operating individuals
in the role of employee or customer, and of organisational units such
as teams, departments or companies. The business is organised as one
or more supply chains of individuals, organisational units and
companies working together in delivering products or services to the
view the organisation is not a static mechanism performing
business processes in a predefined fixed pattern that only allows for
the delivery of uniform products and services. The network organisation
in the Cap Gemini view acts as a living organism
or ecosystem that adapts to its environment. The network organisation
is delivering products and services to the customer in a flexible way.
This is realised by adapting the pattern of the business processes that
are performed in the supply chain.
system that supports the business is also seen as a network system in
two main layers: the information system and the technology infrastructure.
system is seen as a network of communicating and co-operating applications
work together in delivering ICT services to the people in the business
of the Web Enterprise. The ICT services enable the business in two ways:
of the people in the business with communication, control, information
and knowledge services: people and applications work interactively
together in the control and execution of the business process.
of business processes: the applications themselves control and execute
the business process. People have only a supervisory role in monitoring
and controlling the behaviour of the applications.
ICT enabling of a business process may enhance:
efficiency: the same business process is performed faster and at lower
effectiveness: a new or renewed business process is realised resulting
in the delivery of new or renewed products and services to the customers.
of the business are the business benefits of the ICT solution.
infrastructure is seen as a network of communicating and co-operating
hardware devices and system utility software components. The Technology
Infrastructure components work together in delivering technology infrastructure
services such as processing, communication and storage capabilities
to the software components of the information system.
5.2.2 Web Enterprise
Management concerns Business and ICT
and ubiquitous role of ICT in the management and control of the Web
Enterprise results in extreme high requirements for the functionality
and the qualities of services delivered by the ICT systems. These services
must show the same agile and adaptive character as the Web Enterprise.
The ICT systems must support the flexible process patterns and the tailoring
approach of systems management is inadequate for ICT systems that must
fulfil these new requirements. What is needed is a new form of ICT management,
which is an essential and necessary part of the Web Enterprise Management.
It is the part of the Web Enterprise Management that focuses on the
role of ICT in the business.
Enterprise Management is therefore divided in areas in conformance with
our holistic view on Business and ICT system. These are Business Management
and ICT Management. ICT Management manages information system and technology
responsibilities of Business Management are:
management of the supply chain of the Web Enterprise with the objective
that the products and services that are delivered to the customers
have the features and qualities as agreed with the customer.
business governance i.e. management of the roles and responsibilities
of the participants (companies, business units, people) in the Web
Enterprise and the realisation of the accountability of the performances
delivered by the individual participants and the enterprise as a whole.
Enterprise will strongly change the governance aspect of corporate management.
Questions like "who is in charge?", "who is responsible?"
and "who is owner of the resources?" need new answers in the
Web Enterprise. Corporate Governance is no longer defined by the boundaries
of an individual company and by its hierarchical organisation. The Web
Enterprise is only feasible when the roles and responsibilities of the
participants are clearly defined. New ways must be found to realise
the accountability of all participants from the auditor point of view.
management in the Web Enterprise has the following aspects:
management controls that ICT resources (information system and technology
infrastructure) with the required capabilities are available at the
right time and the right place in the business processes.
management controls that the ICT resources deliver the services with
the required functionality and qualities to the business processes
and especially to the people in the Web Enterprise.
roles of the ICT resources and the ICT services in the business
processes and the accountability of their contribution to the
roles, responsibilities and accountability of the ICT organisation
(employees, external parties) that delivers and develops the ICT
services and resources.
in the Web Enterprise has not only the responsibility that the ICT resources
are available or that the services of the ICT systems fulfil all requirements.
ICT Management also governs the role that these ICT services play in
the business of the Web Enterprise. This is necessary to fulfil the
most important of requirement for ICT in the Web Enterprise: the ICT
services must both enable and follow the ever-changing patterns of the
business processes and organisation of the Web Enterprise.
5.2.3 Web Enterprise
Management is part of Architectural Design
Enterprise Management is part of the architectural design. The management
of the Web Enterprise will be the core of the architectural
design of business and ICT system. ProgrammeX will develop an actor-based
approach for the architectural design of business and ICT system.
The approach will primarily focus on the backbone of the Web Enterprise.
That is the roles of human resources and ICT resources in the Web Enterprise
and how they communicate and collaborate together in delivering products
and services to the customer.
5.3 The Changing
World of the ICT Organisation and ICT Providers
from industrial company to ICT enabled Web Enterprise will fundamentally
change the role of the ICT organisation within the company and the role
of ICT providers as third parties in the delivery of ICT services to
will take place in three stages: the production-oriented, service-oriented
and business-oriented stage.
organisations within companies came into existence with the introduction
of a central information system in the company such as a mainframe system
in large companies or a mid-size computer in smaller companies. External
IT providers delivered the necessary software and hardware and developed
the applications for the company.
of the internal IT organisation was the management of the hardware and
applications of the central IT system in the company. The main responsibilities
of the IT organisation are the availability of the hardware and software
resources, the operation of IT systems and the maintenance of existing
external IT providers and the internal IT organisation are organised
as a production organisation aimed at the efficient delivery of the
IT services or products. The focus is on the technology and the own
processes, products and services. IT organisation and IT providers show
a typical industrial organisation aimed at lowest cost and standardised
services and products. There is a strong technology push. The business
must adapt to the technology. The existing IT systems are not very adaptive
to changes in the business requirements.
most IT organisations and IT providers are in the transition from resource-oriented
to service-oriented behaviour. The reasons are the growing pace of change
in the business and the introduction of new technologies such as PC,
LAN, client/server, ERP packages, data warehousing and Internet. The
customer is no longer the company but business units in the company
with their own IT budgets. In stead of one central information system
the internal IT organisation must manage a distributed information system
with a lot of computers, networks and a whole variety of applications.
an ICT organisation that
specific ICT services to specific organisational units and persons
in the company
the ICT services to changing business requirements and new technologies.
shifts from the management of technology and efficient production to
the delivery and development of ICT services and their effectiveness
for the business.
orientation causes a shift from hierarchical to network organisation.
The ICT organisation follows on the delivery side the decentralisation
of the company. Employees of the ICT organisation fulfil supportive
roles in the different business-units.
supplier side ICT organisations follow the trend of outsourcing and
outsource a part of their tasks to external ICT providers. This is the
start of a growing role of the ICT organisation as intermediary between
business and external ICT providers.
already started with the introduction of Service Level Agreements between
the business and the internal ICT organisation and/or external ICT providers.
The SLA contains the agreements about the functionality and the qualities
of the delivered ICT services. SLA's are not always profitable for the
customer. IT organisations that are still in the production-oriented
stage use the SLA to reject requests from the customer for services
or changes that are outside the scope of the SLA. A good SLA does not
fix the functionality of the services but also contains agreements about
only prescribes what services are delivered and not how the services
are delivered. This gives the ICT organisation the opportunity to organise
the delivery process in an effective and efficient way and to adapt
the delivery and the resources when this useful or necessary. New technology
can replace old technology. Changes in resources make it possible to
deliver the same service at lower cost or with higher performance.
cases companies outsource their whole ICT organisation. This is normally
not successful. The SLA with the provider is based on the current status
of the ICT services and a production-oriented view of the ICT organisation.
Adaptation and growth of the ICT services is not part of the SLA. The
company looses a lot of its ICT knowledge and is no longer capable to
renegotiate the SLA when new business requirements emerge.
orientation leads to a more active role of the ICT organisation in the
procurement of new hardware and software resources and the development
of new applications. The ICT organisation advises the business about
the adaptation of the ICT services to changing business requirements
and will co-ordinate the development and implementation of new and renewed
and ICT providers reach this stage when their focus shifts further from
the ICT services to the role of these ICT services in the business.
The role of ICT as enabler of new and renewed business and the business
benefits of the ICT enabling become leading for the definition of the
required ICT services and the planning, development and management of
and ICT resources play roles in the business processes, they even take
over responsibilities from people in the business organisation. For
the ICT enabling it is important to define which role ICT resources
play in the management, control and execution of business processes
in the supply chain. This supply chain is no longer restricted to one
company. In the transition to the Web Enterprise the role of ICT must
be defined for extended supply networks which include more companies.
not only define the ICT services but also the role that these services
play in the business processes and what business benefits these roles
orientation leads to a more pro-active role of the ICT organisation.
The ICT organisation will actively watch the technology trends and advise
the company how the technology can enable the business. The ICT organisation
becomes a partner of the business organisation for the design and development
of new ICT enabled business.
orientation will also shift the role of the ICT providers from technology-oriented
to both business and technology oriented. ICT providers must have knowledge
of business and ICT for the delivery of ICT enabled business. Business
consultants, business architects and business experts will collaborate
with ICT consultants, architects and experts in the design and realisation
of ICT enabled business.
organisation will act as intermediary between the business organisation
and the consultants, architects, developers and providers that deliver
the new ICT enabled business.
orientation will cause a further shift to network organisation. The
ICT organisation follows the transition to Web Enterprises. The internal
ICT organisations of the different companies in the Web Enterprise must
collaborate together in the delivery of coherent ICT services that support
the agile and adaptive character of the Web Enterprise. The networked
ICT systems that support the Web Enterprise will show a large heterogeneity
of applications, software and hardware, which all require different
business and ICT knowledge and competencies for development and maintenance.
This will lead to further outsourcing of supportive and expert roles
to external ICT providers and business and ICT professionals.
between ICT organisations and the ICT providers will also use ICT enablement
to become a Web Enterprise that will show two supply webs. The first
supply web will deliver the business and ICT transformations. This supply
web supports the planning, design and realisation of the ICT enabled
business. The second supply web delivers ICT services and resources
to the business. This supply web supports the running of the ICT enabled
ICT Support Web Enterprise will have an agile and adaptive character
and is able to realise and support the ICT enabled Business Web Enterprise.
5.3.4 New Roles
for ICT Professionals
Support Web Enterprise will result in new roles for the professionals
in the development of ICT enabled business and the delivery of ICT services.
The whole support organisation will be an ICT enabled Web Enterprise.
point is the sourcing of the ICT professionals in the ICT Support
Web Enterprise. Are they employee of one of the companies within the
Business Web Enterprise or employee of and external ICT provider or
in the ICT Support Web Enterprise are ICT services manager, programme
manager, architect, consultant, auditor, solution
developer, and expert.
A key role
in the ICT Support Web Enterprise is the ICT services manager.
The ICT services manager is responsible for:
of the ICT services and resources supply web;
closing of service level agreements between business and the other
ICT professionals and ICT providers;
management of the delivery of ICT services to the business;
co-ordination of ICT services experts from internal an external parties
which perform the delivery of these services;
co-ordination with programme managers who are responsible for the
design and development of new or renewed ICT enabled business.
manager has a key role in the development of new or renewed ICT
enabled business. The programme manager is responsible for the control
of a transformation programme of business and ICT and the co-ordination
of the different projects in the transformation programme. The programme
manager also organises and promotes the co-operation and communication
between the members of the different project teams.
and architects play an important role in the planning and design
of new or renewed ICT enabled business and the necessary transformation
of business and ICT to realise this business.
advise on ICT-enabled business solutions and transformation processes.
There are consultants with knowledge about the different business aspects
of the transformation like business processes or business information
and consultants with ICT oriented knowledge like application development
and technology infrastructure.
are responsible for the design of the architecture of the new or renewed
ICT enabled business. The business and ICT aspects require different
knowledge and competencies of the architect. This means that the design
is normally not the work of one architect but of a team of architects,
who design each an aspect of the ICT enabled business.
developers realise the solutions designed by the architects. The
solution developers work in teams, which realise one of the projects
within the transformation programme.
may be a business change, a set of applications or a part of the technology
infrastructure. The application developers assemble their solutions
from application components delivered by component developers in the
back-office or by third parties.
support the ICT Support Web Enterprise with specialised knowledge. There
are amongst others:
experts with specific business knowledge
experts with knowledge about application design and construction technology
infrastructure, security, systems management and software construction.
services experts with knowledge about monitoring and operating the
software and hardware of the ICT system, the installation of software
and hardware and end-user support like courses and the helpdesk
developers with knowledge about development of components within the
component-based development approach.
enabled Web Enterprise will make the role of the independent auditor
even more important. The technology will pervade every business,
product and service. Both the business and the applications of the ICT
system become more complex. A part of the solution is to extend applications
with functionality for diagnosis, testing and auditing. But methods
and tools of the auditors must be totally redesigned to meet the complexity
of the ICT enabled Web Enterprise.
ICT Support Web Enterprise professionals can work at any place and any
time and communicate and co-operate with each other via the Internet.
In fact when some professionals wants to discuss or create a solution
they can use the technology for the creation of a virtual workroom where
they work together as in a real room. When during the discussion another
expert is needed, he is searched via the network and when he is available,
he can join the meeting in the virtual room.
Cap Gemini point of view, our architects, consultants and programme
managers can work at our office or at the office of the customer. The
same holds for solution development teams. Experts work at the office
of Cap Gemini or the offices of third parties. They can virtually
or physically join the other professionals when their support is needed.
services experts also work at our office and use automated tools for
remote monitoring, diagnosis, operation of software and hardware, the
remote installation of software and the helpdesk function. Only the
installation and maintenance of hardware requires experts at location.
services manager is an employee of the customer organisation or an external
ICT service provider such as Cap Gemini. In a Web Enterprise it
is possible to have one ICT services manager for the whole enterprise
or a team of ICT services managers of different companies.
Support Web Enterprise requires a lot of flexibility from the professionals,
but conversely it offers them also a lot of flexibility. The patterns,
in which the professionals co-operate in the delivery of transformations
or services to all our customers, are constantly changing. The professional
can work at the same time in the delivery of different projects.
professional gets a lot of freedom where and when he does his job. The
professional can work at the customers premises, using his portable
PC as extended office, at home using his home system as home office
or at a workstation at the office of Cap Gemini.
5.4 The Changing
World of Human Resource Management
enabled Web Enterprise has consequences for the Human Resource Management
both for Cap Gemini and our customers. This paragraph describes
the vision of Cap Gemini Interim Management BV on the changing
world of human resource management and especially the sourcing of management
professionals. In future the same vision will be applicable for all
of the continuous change in business environment, mainly caused by the
engine of technology development, puts pressure on our view on organisations,
their structure and their competencies. The recognition of the importance
of knowledge creation by Nonaka
and the consciousness of the individual's ever changing role within
organisation by Bridges are merely the consequences of this
concepts for business development, inspired by Hamel, Prahalad, Senge
and many others, are mostly based on the focus on strategic sourcing
and competence development theories.
no doubt, guide us to:
the 'jobless society'.
concepts fit well to the ICT enabled Web Enterprise.
describes the changing world as follows:
that the modern world is on the verge of a huge leap in creativity and
productivity. But the job is not going to be part of tomorrow's
economic reality. Although there will always be enormous amounts of
work to do, the work will not be contained in the familiar envelopes
we call jobs
employment is a thing of the past. The rules of the labour market and
the role of individuals, delivering services within organisations are
So is the
importance of management competencies and professionals for the positioning
of organisations in their respective markets
ever, the future survival of organisations will depend on the ability
to change and adapt themselves to changes in their environment. Innovation
can only be realised if the conditions for change are available and
the change has been given direction by a deliberate intent. (See Nonaka).
Apart from having a strategy for change, a transformation approach and
the support of technological skills and expertise, organisations need
to dispose of the right managerial skills. Management Sourcing as developed
by Cap Gemini Interim Management is therefore a strategic issue
for any organisation that wants to be leader in its market.
management resources can be hired for the occasion, long term perspective
on the development of management competencies will obviously be preferable.
This apart from whether the necessary management resources are obtained
from a Management Sourcing partnership or else.
of Management Sourcing differ from industry to industry, with the dynamics
of organisational change.
of Management Sourcing includes the former known aspects of:
Recruitment, talent spotting and the loss of management resources;
development, training and education, management assignments, job rotation,
coaching, mentoring, intervision, shadow management, management support;
management consequences of insourcing and outsourcing alliances;
Management Search and Interim Management.
decades ahead the employer-employee relation will modify towards a partnership
relation. The perfect manager will fulfil temporary roles in line with
the needs of the changing organisation. As
a consequence of the 'virtual organisation' Management Sourcing will
be an obtainable service, delivered by the 'coalitions of human resources'
that will derive from today's services companies like Cap Gemini.