from industrial organisations and stand-alone IT systems to the new
virtual, agile and adaptive Web Enterprises enabled by ICT causes a
big gap or to take a more positive perspective an exciting challenge
for the designers and developers of both these new businesses and the
supporting ICT systems.
of the gap and the changing business concepts are the main challenges
for ICT suppliers like Cap Gemini in the next years. Cap Gemini
must develop the knowledge, methods and skills or in one word new competencies.
our customers in the reinvention of their business enabled by ICT
and in creating the new Web Enterprises.
the huge increase of complexity of the new Web Enterprises and of
the world-wide network of corporate and private ICT systems connected
by the Internet.
our business and ICT professionals in their newly emerging roles in
the realisation of ICT enabled Web Enterprises.
a reinvention of the application delivery resulting in faster development
of more complex information systems.
provides an overview of these competencies.
4.2 The Competencies
is developing the competencies that the company needs to meet the challenges
of the 21st Century. In this Outline of ProgrammeX we focus
on competencies in the following areas:
of these competencies is especially aimed to meet the ICT challenges and to support the realisation the ICT enabled Web Enterprises.
for ICT enabled business transformation is already developed within
Cap Gemini. The objective of Programme X is to develop new competencies
for the Web Enterprise management, architecture, component-based development
and the transformation delivery.
must enable Cap Gemini to realise with its customers the ICT enabled
business of the next century.
4.2.1 Web Enterprise
have a pervasive and ubiquitous character in the Web Enterprise. The
management of ICT resources and services must become an integral part
of the business management of the Web Enterprise. Chapter
5 describes some aspects of this new Web Enterprise Management.
need for a new management approach in the Web Enterprise
main areas of Web Enterprise Management: business management and ICT
changing world of the ICT professionals. The ICT organisations within
companies are developing from production-oriented through a service-oriented
stage to a business-oriented focusing on the roles of ICT in the business
of the Web Enterprise. ICT providers follow a same shift from product-oriented
via service-oriented to business-oriented and will focus on the business
benefits of their services and products. ICT organisations and ICT
providers will eventually also work together in an ICT Web Enterprise
aimed at the delivery of ICT services to companies in a business Web
Enterprise. This development will change the roles of ICT professionals
and also the human resource management of professionals.
Approach for ICT enabled Business
has developed an approach for the transformation
of business and ICT. The approach supports complex changes of business
and ICT in two ways:
solution definition (or SCOPE)
starting the transformation a team of employees of the customer and
professionals of Cap Gemini define an agreed solution for the
transformation. The definition consists of a vision and a global design
of the result of the transformation of business and ICT. A business
case describes the expected business benefits of the transformation.
The solution definition also contains a plan of the transformation
in the form of a global transformation programme of delivery projects.
Management is the method for managing the transformation programme
of delivery projects realising a large transformation of business
and ICT that aims at the realisation of the business benefits defined
in the agreed solution.
Approach of Business and ICT supports:
benefits are leading
solution of the transformation is primarily expressed in the expected
business benefits and not in a changed business process or a new information
system. During the transformation both the solution and the programme
are adapted when the expected business benefits are not achieved.
alignment between business and ICT and adoption of new technology
solution definition is aimed to deliver a solution that aligns the
business vision of the company with a vision on the role of ICT in
the business. Important in this vision is the role of technology as
enabler of new business. The transformation programme supports a gradual
transformation of business and ICT. The programme is flexible and
the content and sequence of development projects is adaptable to changes
in the business requirements and the available technology.
is developing an architecture, that supports
a coherent design and realisation of ICT enabled business. This guarantees
the full integration between the human organisation of the business
and electronic functionality of the ICT system.
sees architecture as a set of principles expressed in rules and guidelines
that support our architects in the design of the business and ICT system
that will result from a transformation.
integrates four architecture main areas: business, information, information
system and technology infrastructure. The architecture also focuses
on the design of special aspects such as security and governance.
Gemini Architecture supports:
and ICT alignment.
ICT architectures focus on the design of the infrastructure and the
software of the ICT system. The Cap Gemini architecture focuses
also the design of the business and especially the business information.
The result is a business and ICT solution with a perfect alignment
between the business and the ICT system.
enabled Web Enterprises
X will develop the Actor-based Architectural
Design approach for the design of the business and ICT system
of the ICT enabled Web Enterprise.
The architecture is aimed at the new virtual, agile and adaptive organisation
of both the business and the applications of the ICT system. There
is a shift in focus from information to communication and co-operation
within the business. Special attention is paid to knowledge exchange
and knowledge creation.
Information system and technology architecture are based on the concept
of a world-wide ICT infrastructure which supports Web Enterprises
with participating companies and individuals all over the globe.
is developing a component-based approach
for the application development. The method is not based on the reuse
of small application "parts" but of components on the level
of more complex sub-assemblies, like an application supporting all transactions
for a bank account.
Based Development (CBD) of applications supports:
Gemini wants to reduce a current development period for an application
of nine months to nine weeks or even to nine days. CBD is the
way to realise this faster application development.
between Business and ICT and Adoption of New Technology
makes a distinction between business components and ICT specific components.
This clearly separates business-specific functionality from technology-specific
functionality. New business applications make use of existing technology
components. New technology is made available for business applications
through new or adapted technology-specific components.
of Complex Distributed Systems
solves an important contradiction in the feasibility of applications:
How can I build an application that is both complex and adaptable
while still being reliable?
enabled Web Enterprise
CBD the ICT enabled Web Enterprise is difficult and perhaps impossible
to realise. We have advanced ideas about the business of the Web Enterprise.
Within a few years the hardware is certainly not longer a barrier.
The only problem is how to develop the software that meets the requirements
of the Web Enterprise in a reasonable period of time. CBD will contribute
to the solution of this problem.
4.2.5 Delivery Approach
and Component-based Development will strongly influence the way in which
a business and ICT transformation is delivered. Chapter
9 gives an overview of the most important changes. These include:
- An iterative
delivery approach: The whole complexity of the ICT enabled Web Enterprise
is not realised in one Big Bang but gradually and evolutionary over
a period of many years.
Analysis: New ICT applications are not designed and developed from
scratch but as an extension and modification of existing components
of Existing Systems
of the Application Delivery: from craft to mass-customisation.